The Fertile Crescent is known as the cradle of civilization whose region includes the modern-day countries of Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Palestine Egypt, and parts of Turkey and Iran.
Ancient Greece has heavily influenced Western cultures in the areas of politics, philosophy, the arts, literature, science and language. Its legacy is foundational to European civilization.
Ancient Rome was a civilization that rose along the Italian Peninsula, centered on the city of Rome. Its Empire was one of the largest of the ancient world, encompassing much of Europe, Asia Minor, and North Africa.
The Middle Ages are commonly dated from the fall of the Roman Empire to the 15th century. It is marked by the rise of power of the Catholic Church and feudalism.
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that heavily influenced literature, philosophy, the arts, politics, science and religion. The Protestant Reformation began as a schism from the Roman Catholic Church and directly changed the politics and power structures throughout Europe.
The early modern period in European history saw the rise of secularized civic politics and the nation-state.